-JGS header kits
Turbo: Many types out there most common are the T25, T3, T3 super 60, IHI
Watercooled for longer life
Oil is a must, turbos need oil!
Intercooler: Not a must but is very nice to cool the air before the TB to help
prevent detonation. Two types side mounted or front mounted.
Piping: This is a must can’t have a turbo without pipes. You need pipes from turbo to intercooler (if having one), intercooler to TB and then intake pipe
-from turbo to intercooler usually can’t go bigger then 2”
-intercooler to TB, nice to be 2.5” doesn’t have to be
-intake would be best to be around 2.5-3”
Wastegate: Two types
-External: this kind goes before the turbo and monitors the flow and dumps the exhaust via it’s own pipe to the exhaust
-Internal: attaches to the turbo and monitors the flow and releases by the flap on the turbo, internals sometimes may have more problems with boostcreep due to small exhaust pipes or bad wastegates.
BOV: It is not a must but will help in the life of the turbo and spool up times. So far we have to recirculate them until we master the art of blow-through MAF. Any type will work but it seems like the old Eclipse BOV works the best
Oil lines: The oil supply should be around ¼” and could be steel braided or high temp. rubber. The oil drain must be no smaller then 5/8” and needs to be high temp. For the return some tap the pan with others Eric tap in the block.
MAF: Some people use the Mustang MAF or you can buy one from Pro-flow.com
Injectors: Need new ones since the stock ones aren’t good for the high HP, 38# are good but 42# are better they are off the Ford Lightning.
Gauges: A must is a boost gauge…other nice gauges are EGT and A/F ratio gauge
O2 housing: Nobody makes one for our cars and it might be the hardest part to fabricate. The problem with our car is the damn A/C condenser so this has to tuck more quickly then others.
Slim Fan: Since the fan we have now is huge getting a new fan is a must…get the biggest one available.
Misc. Parts: Piping connectors, coolant and vacuum T’s, air filter, bolts, various size clamps, brass fittings
Tuning: This is the biggest part…if you remember Tom, no boost is safe on the Zetec without proper tuning, the best way is a chip…ask anybody, but there are other ways, like the MSD and the S-AFC, and others…the only problem is that our PCM is to smart and learns all this and compensates for this. The other ways have been done before but nothing is fool proof, so whatever you do taking it to the dyno is the best idea.
Now that should be a good start for all you n00bs out there, I will add more and correct things that needed to be corrected. I was kinda rushed since my g/f wants to go to bed!
One of the surest ways to get more power out of an engine is to increase the amount of air and fuel that it can burn. One way to do this is to add cylinders or make the current cylinders bigger. Sometimes these changes may not be feasible -- a turbo can be a simpler, more compact way to add power, especially for an aftermarket accessory.
Turbochargers allow an engine to burn more fuel and air by packing more into the existing cylinders. The typical boost provided by a turbocharger is 6 to 8 pounds per square inch (psi). Since normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi at sea level, you can see that you are getting about 50 percent more air into the engine. Therefore, you would expect to get 50 percent more power. It's not perfectly efficient, so you might get a 30- to 40-percent improvement instead.
One cause of the inefficiency comes from the fact that the power to spin the turbine is not free. Having a turbine in the exhaust flow increases the restriction in the exhaust. This means that on the exhaust stroke, the engine has to push against a higher back-pressure. This subtracts a little bit of power from the cylinders that are firing at the same time.
Turbochargers are a type of forced induction system. They compress the air flowing into the engine. The advantage of compressing the air is that it lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder, and more air means that more fuel can be added. Therefore, you get more power from each explosion in each cylinder. A turbocharged engine produces more power overall than the same engine without the charging. This can significantly improve the power-to-weight ratio for the engine.
In order to achieve this boost, the turbocharger uses the exhaust flow from the engine to spin a turbine, which in turn spins an air pump. The turbine in the turbocharger spins at speeds of up to 150,000 rotations per minute (rpm) -- that's about 30 times faster than most car engines can go. And since it is hooked up to the exhaust, the temperatures in the turbine are also very high.
How It Works
The turbocharger is bolted to the exhaust manifold of the engine. The exhaust from the cylinders spins the turbine, which works like a gas turbine engine. The turbine is connected by a shaft to the compressor, which is located between the air filter and the intake manifold. The compressor pressurizes the air going into the pistons.
The exhaust from the cylinders passes through the turbine blades, causing the turbine to spin. The more exhaust that goes through the blades, the faster they spin on the other end of the shaft that the turbine is attached to, the compressor pumps air into the cylinders. The compressor is a type of centrifugal pump -- it draws air in at the center of its blades and flings it outward as it spins.
In order to handle speeds of up to 150,000 rpm, the turbine shaft has to be supported very carefully. Most bearings would explode at speeds like this, so most turbochargers use a fluid bearing. This type of bearing supports the shaft on a thin layer of oil that is constantly pumped around the shaft. This serves two purposes: It cools the shaft and some of the other turbocharger parts, and it allows the shaft to spin without much friction.
There are many tradeoffs involved in designing a turbocharger for an engine. In the next section, we'll look at some of these compromises and see how they affect performance.
Turbo Lag (aka turbo threshold)
One of the main problems with turbochargers is that they do not provide an immediate power boost when you step on the gas. It takes a second for the turbine to get up to speed before boost is produced. This results in a feeling of lag when you step on the gas, and then the car lunges ahead when the turbo gets moving.
One way to decrease turbo lag is to reduce the inertia of the rotating parts, mainly by reducing their weight. This allows the turbine and compressor to accelerate quickly, and start providing boost earlier.
Small vs. Large Turbocharger
One sure way to reduce the inertia of the turbine and compressor is to make the turbocharger smaller. A small turbocharger will provide boost more quickly and at lower engine speeds, but may not be able to provide much boost at higher engine speeds when a really large volume of air is going into the engine. It is also in danger of spinning too quickly at higher engine speeds, when lots of exhaust is passing through the turbine.
A large turbocharger can provide lots of boost at high engine speeds, but may have bad turbo lag because of how long it takes to accelerate its heavier turbine and compressor.
In the next section, we'll take a look at some of the tricks used to overcome these challenges.
Too Much Boost
With air being pumped into the cylinders under pressure by the turbocharger, and then being further compressed by the piston, there is more danger of knock. Knocking happens because as you compress air, the temperature of the air increases. The temperature may increase enough to ignite the fuel before the spark plug fires. Cars with turbochargers often need to run on higher octane fuel to avoid knock. If the boost pressure is really high, the compression ratio of the engine may have to be reduced to avoid knocking
Supercharger vs. Turbocharger
The key difference between a turbocharger and a supercharger is its power supply. Something has to supply the power to run the air compressor. In a supercharger, there is a belt that connects directly to the engine. It gets its power the same way that the water pump or alternator does. A turbocharger, on the other hand, gets its power from the exhaust stream. The exhaust runs through a turbine, which in turn spins the compressor.
There are tradeoffs in both systems. In theory, a turbocharger is more efficient because it is using the "wasted" energy in the exhaust stream for its power source. On the other hand, a turbocharger causes some amount of back pressure in the exhaust system and tends to provide less boost until the engine is running at higher RPMs. Superchargers are easier to install but tend to be more expensive. THERE IS NO DIRECT SUPERCHARGER FOR OUR CAR (THERE NOBODY CAN SAY THAT IT’S NOT HERE)
-There is no metal piece in the front end of the car that you can easily mount the IC too. There are various different ways to mount the IC. For starters what I did was put a “L” bracket across the whole front of the car and mount the IC off that. Others like Jason’s hang them off the header panel, or at least that is what I can see off. Find whatever way will work for your IC and setup.
[img width=800 height=600]http://www.fuelempire.com/media/188_194_3777_original.jpg[/img]
[img width=800 height=600]http://www.fuelempire.com/media/188_194_3778_original.jpg[/img]
Dent PCV canister
-If you are running a internal wastegate most likely you will need to dent the PCV canister to help fit the placement against the can. Somebody should try removing it but still keeping a SS line and let it hang and see what happens. That would clear up a lot of room but you can manage with just denting it.
-For most turbos you can just line up the turbo and drill new holes. Since my turbo is a little bit smaller what I did that helped was weld the hole of the manifold a tad smaller and grind it flat and then mount the turbo this helped put the turbo away from the engine and help clear the PCV canister a little bit more.
-Make sure turbo fits the manifold and clears the radiator and will have plenty of room for the O2 housing
-There is no big turbo kit for our cars so it’s hard to come by a O2 housing. And since the AC compressor right by the turbo, 99% of any aftermarket O2 housing will not work without serious modifications. Other options are taking the car to a local exhaust shop and they could finish the setup. For a full exhaust with a turbo you need at least 2.5” all the way back, but going 3” with a turbo setup has been proven not to hurt.
-You are going to need various bends depending on how you want to route the pipes. There are many different options you can go with. For small to moderate boost the pipes should be no greater then 2.5”. Also on the IC pipes you will need to mount various things like BOV and IAT sensor. For the best place you should mount the BOV on a straight piece of pipe around 8-12” before the throttle body. The IAT sensor should also be after the IC somewhere for best readings on the air temperature going into the engine. You can use the stock one or buy one that will screw in.
-When you make your intake you need to take things in consideration. Like size and if you are going to run blow through or suck through MAF. Most likely you are going to run a suck through MAF so you are going to need a bung for the BOV to recirculate back to the intake after the MAF. You will also need to find a way to mount the MAF (see article http://www.teamzx2.com/index.php?topic=8893.0 ). You also have to decide what size intake you want. This can be 2.5” or 3” depends on preference and room.
[img width=800 height=600]http://www.fuelempire.com/media/188_194_3779_original.jpg[/img]
-Every turbo (well 99%) have the option to water cool the turbo. You can either run it or not. If you don’t want to run it then simple do nothing. But if you want too, then get the right size fittings and run lines to the coolant lines. There is one on the back of the block by the firewall middle of engine, and another around the coil. You can either just splice in one or route one to one side and the other side to the other hose. There is no specific way it has to flow, just make sure both sides are connected.
-Turbos need oil there is no way to get around this. If they don’t they are just like an engine they will die. There are a couple places. The main two are behind the block right by the oil filter. The second place is right under the coil. Both these places are good spots the one by the filter takes a 1/4” STD fitting and the one under the coil takes a 1/8” STD fitting. You may need to add a oil restrictor in the line depending how much pressure you are getting in the line and if you are burning oil or getting oil past the turbo seals.
-The oil in the turbo drains by gravity so there can’t be any kinks or drastic bends in the line. If there are there is a good chance oil will back up and blow through the seals. So the best is to use a minimum of a 5/8” line. Most people even in the Focus land saying that tapping in the highest part of the pan works. For me I think it works and is the smartest. If you put it in the pan high enough you won’t have problems also if you ever switch back to non turbo if you put it in the windage tray you are going to have to remove that and replace it, but if put it in the pan then all you have to do is replace the pan. But when you have the turbo mounted make sure you have plenty of room for the drain and 02 housing. I kind of made that mistake and it’s a tight fit.
-There are different places you can get vacuum source. The one I think is the best is, since the PCV can’t see boost, remove that hose from the manifold and take WG source or boost gauge source and BOV source right from there. Will work the best and you have to do that anyway so why not use that hole for a good use.
-You are going to most likely going to have to run a slim fan, at least 10” or bigger. You can either do it a pusher or puller. The best place to find them is on ebay.
-The biggest thing in turboing any car. Without proper tuning be ready to replace your engine. As you read the posts you are finding out mail order tuning is not cutting it. It never was it never will be. There are so many variables in tuning by mail order. If you do order a mail order tune the only way to get it exact is by dyno time.
i guess that helps for now, i'll add more tomorrow i got a little lazy at the end, it's 2:50am so what can you expect.
**if you do not wish to have your pics on here...or want to add certain pics, please let me know.**